Once a highly available, fault-tolerant, multi-layer campus network has been built, network services such as DNS, DHCP, TFTP, and NTP can be deployed. These topics are addressed in the following individual sections:
- Domain Name System (DNS
- Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP
- Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP
- Network Time Protocol (NTP)
Domain Name System (DNS)
DNS enables the mapping of host names to IP addresses within a network or networks. DNS server(s) deployed within a network provide a database that maps hostnames to IP addresses. Devices on the network can query the DNS server and receive IP addresses for other devices in the network, thereby facilitating communication between network devices. Relying on DNS, however, can be problematic. If the DNS server becomes unavailable and a network device is relying on that server to provide a hostname-to-IP-address mapping, communication can and will fail. For this reason, do not rely on DNS for communication between Cisco Unified CME and the IP telephony end points. Configure Cisco Unified CME systems, gateways, and endpoint devices to use IP addresses rather than hostnames. We do not recommend configuration of DNS parameters such as DNS server addresses, hostnames, and domain names. If you eliminate DNS configuration within the IP telephony network, telephony devices and applications do not have to rely on the DNS server.
DHCP is used by hosts on the network to get initial configuration information, including IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, and TFTP server. DHCP eases the administrative burden of manually configuring each host with an IP address and other configuration information. DHCP also provides automatic reconfiguration of network configuration when devices are moved between subnets. The configuration information is provided by a DHCP server located in the network, which responds to DHCP requests from DHCP-capable clients. You should configure IP telephony endpoints to use DHCP to simplify deployment of these devices. Any RFC 2131 compliant DHCP server can be used to provide configuration information to IP telephony network devices. When deploying IP telephony devices in an existing data-only network, all you have to do is add DHCP voice scopes to an existing DHCP server for these new voice devices. Because IP telephony devices are configured to use and rely on a DHCP server for IP configuration information, you must deploy DHCP servers in a redundant fashion. At least two DHCP servers should be deployed within the telephony network such that, if one of the servers fails, the other can continue to answer DHCP client requests. You should also ensure that DHCP server(s) are configured with enough IP subnet addresses to handle all DHCP-reliant clients within the network.